Glossary

Important: The definitions in this Glossary are for educational purposes only and do not prejudge in any way the definitions used in local and global Self-Regulatory and Regulatory Codes.

Ad AlertCommunication issued by an SRO to alert public authorities, consumer organizations and the advertising industry about evidence of fraudulent or unethical activity by an advertiser
Ad FraudIn internet advertising, deliberately false reporting of impressions, clicks, actions or data events to criminally earn revenue, or for other purposes of deception or malice. The fraudulent visitors can be entirely mechanical, human or a mix of both.
AdvertiserAn organization or person advertising a product or service
Advertising AgencyCompany creating advertisements for other companies or organizations, sometimes also handling other forms of promotion and marketing
Advertising IndustryAdvertisers, advertising agencies and the media and/or trade associations representing their interests
AgencySee Advertising Agency
Alternative Dispute ResolutionMethods used to resolve disputes out of Court, including negotiation, conciliation, mediation, and various forms of arbitration
Burden of proofResponsibility for proving a disputed claim or assertion. In Ad Self-Regulation, the burden of proof lies with the advertiser.
Code (of Practice)Rules governing the contents (and sometimes the form) of advertisements
See also Negotiated Code, Self-regulatory Code, and Statutory Code
Code-Making BodyPart of an SRO, usually composed of industry representatives, responsible for the formulation and revision of the Code
Comparative AdvertisingAdvertising which expressly or by clear implication identifies a competitor, its products or services
Competitor ComplaintComplaint about an advertisement from a competitor of the advertiser.
ComplaintConsumer Complaint about an advertisement by a member of the public or a consumer organization.
Complaints CommitteeSee Jury
Compliance ClauseA clause in advertising contracts committing both parties to accept an Advertising Self-Regulatory Code and be bound by the rulings of an SRO. It enables a media owner to refuse an advertisement which has been found to be in breach of a Code in the event of the advertiser refusing voluntary compliance.
Copy adviceProvision by an SRO of an opinion as to whether an advertisement complies with advertising rules. The advice is provided on a confidential basis and is usually non-binding. It may include suggestions of amendments to ensure compliance with the rules. Copy advice is provided upon the request of advertisers, agencies or the media.
Co-RegulationSystem of regulation combining statutory and self-regulatory elements, and sometimes involving other stakeholders such as consumer organizations
Country of destinationCountry to whose consumers an advertisement is addressed
Country of originIn the context of cross-border complaints, the country in which the media carrying the advertisement (or, in the case of direct marketing, the advertiser) is based
Cross-border complaintComplaint by an individual or organization based in one country about an advertisement circulating in that country but carried in media based in another
DenigrationDisparaging reference(s) to competitors or other advertisers, their products or services
ICC CodeCode of Advertising and Marketing Communication Practice of the International Chamber of Commerce
Information exchangeCooperation between two or more SROs to resolve a case with transnational aspects
JuryPart of an SRO responsible for deciding on complaints
LevySmall percentage charge on advertising expenditure collected to fund an SRO
MarketersSee Advertisers
Marketing communicationAny form of communication produced directly by or on behalf of advertisers intended primarily to promote products or to influence consumer behavior. In addition to advertising, marketing communications include direct marketing techniques, promotions and sponsorships, among others.
Media RefusalRefusal by media to accept and advertisement, usually at the request of an SRO
MonitoringExamination of adverts by an SRO on its own initiative, for compliance with Codes or legislation
Mutual recognitionIn the context of cross-border cases, acceptance by the national SRO in an advertisement's country of destination of the jurisdiction of the SRO in the country of origin
Negotiated CodeCode agreed between the industry and statutory authorities
Online Behavioral Advertising (OBA)The collection by a third party over a period of time of web viewing behavior data from a particular computer or device which takes place across multiple web domains not under common control, and which is used by the third party to deliver advertising to that particular computer or device based on the preferences or interests inferred from the data by the third party's technology. These preferences or interests are often categorized into "interest segments" which are then used to target multiple web users with a specific preference or interest.
Pre-clearanceExamination of an advertisement by a regulatory body, usually as a compulsory pre-condition before it is published or transmitted
Programmatic advertisingPurchase of advertising space based on algorithms which automate the buying, placement, and optimization of media inventory via a bidding system, typically in real time, allowing advertisers to identify the demographics of viewers rather than the websites they are visiting.
SanctionMeans of enforcing compliance with the rulings of an SRO
SecretariatPermanent staff of an SRO
Self-RegulationRegulation and control system managed by representatives of a given industry or sector
Self-Regulatory CodeCode written and put in place by the industry or sector
Self-Regulatory Organization (SRO)Body set up and funded by the advertising industry to apply a Code or rules aimed at ensuring that advertisements are legal, decent, honest and truthful
Statutory AuthorityGovernmental or public body responsible for the enforcement of legislation or codes
Statutory CodeCode having the force of law, usually put in place by legislation or by a governmental body
Substance (Complaint of)Complaint which shows prima facie evidence of a breach of the Code or raises an issue requiring an investigation
SubstantiationEvidence that supports claims made in an advertisement
TripartiteBody representing the common interests of the three parts of the advertising industry (advertisers, advertising agencies and the media)
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